‘Bulk racking’ generally refers to racking which carries bulk stock in full pallets (as opposed to picking stock discussed below). Where picking stock is also held, bulk stock might also be referred to as back-up stock, although back up stock (and bulk) may also be stacked multi-high and multi deep in a non-racked area.
Full pallets will be held in ‘standard’ size racking bays. For ‘standard’ there is not a particular standard but most racking bays will be between 1.5m and 2m high, more generally around 1.65m high so as to accommodate the vast majority of pallets (with the height of the vast majority of pallets governed by they being able to fit two high in an articulated vehicle). A bay’s width is determined by the distance between the uprights, but generally this is around 2.7m, allowing for 3 euro pallets or 2 standard pallets. Where a warehouse is handling heavy product, bay widths may be less to increase the weight capacity of the horizontals.
Generally, a warehouse will have racking up to its ceiling, and have handling equipment – reach trucks – to service this. For most warehouses, this will be 4 or 5 racks high, including the ground rows. Sometimes the top rack may not be full height and designed by need or necessity for half pallets. Where a warehouse has a significant number of products held in smaller, perhaps half-height, pallets (possibly because they are low sellers) it may have an area of racking specifically designed so as to optimise space utilisation.